Friday, December 6, 2019

Deontological Christian Research Institute â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Deontological Ethics Christian Research Institute? Answer: Introduction Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a modernized technique to get best telecommunication services. With the help of ICT, communication among people worldwide has become so easy and quick. Moreover, content sharing can be done in secured and reliable way by using ICT services. ICT is also known as advanced version of IT and it consists of addition telephone lines and wireless signals and computers. Besides this, other software solutions such as enterprise software and middleware software etc. are also involved in ICT. Therefore, we can say that ICT provides various benefits to its users but on other side there are also some ethical issues that are concerned with ICT. The management ICT related ethical issues include security, privacy, social inclusion, community and identity, cyber-crime and ICT professionalism etc. Among all these ethical issues, the selected media article is based on ethical issue of security that is commonly encountered by IT users. Through this repor t, I will discuss that particular issue of security, investigate the media article on behalf of classical ethical theories and also focus on solution to resolve security related issues (Digital Single Market, 2017). Discussion The media article is about Net Neutrality. According to article, EU has committed to provide net neutrality i.e. open internet to all people of this continent. The rules and regulations for net neutrality have adapted by EU and beneficial for digital single market. Under this process of net neutrality, enforceable rights are declared for end-users to obtain and distribute content of internet and services according to choice. Furthermore, these rules also ensure that all requirements for using open internet will be same for everyone in Europe without any discrimination. There will also be no throttling and blocking will be occurred in case of online services, applications and as well as for content. Every person has freedom to use any kind of app accounting to their choice. Another advantage of open internet is that whole network traffic will be treated equally without any partiality (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). The appropriate security treatments for regular network traffic will be provided equally to all. As I have mentioned that there are common rules for accessing open network, so there is no provision for selecting winners and losers among internet users for deciding that which appropriate services and content are available. This discussion clears that net neutrality is good for all people in EU but the ethical issue that I have noticed in this process is of security. If internet will be used openly then chances of security will be reduced. To reduce this issue some essential security steps are required to taken by EU government. Before discussing about security steps, I will analyze the media article on behalf of classical ethical theories. Classical Theories of Ethics With the help of classical ethics theories it is easier to measure the overall morality of articles information that to what extent it is wrong and right. The main ethical theories are utilitarianism, deontology, virtue and contract (Alexander Moore, 2017). Utilitarianism This classical theory of ethics provides information regarding accuracy and inaccuracy of an action (Christian Research Institute, 2017). Besides this, this theory also defines that a solution is considered to be better if it has potential to enhance utility of action at maximum level. In selected media article the action that is taken by government of EU is right. This is because government understands the importance of internet and its requirement for people to do different business and personal tasks. Now people can communicate and sharing content easily from one place to other securely. They no need to worry about confidentiality of content because according to media article government has founded solutions to control security and privacy issues in case of open internet. That is why there is uncertainty to say that this action of government is correct according to utilitarianism (SearchCIO, 2017). Deontology Another classical theory is of deontology and it is based on principles of duties and claims. Moreover, it is also concerned about the correctness and incorrectness of duties and claims. The main fact behind the deontology is to identify that through which entity an accurate action can be taken and penalties of wrong action are not considered (Sevenpillarsinstitute.org, 2017). This thing can also be found in media article because EU has adapted net neutrality even if government knows about the security concerns of this. But without considering consequences of open internet EU government has adapted it and also ready to provide appropriate solutions to control security and privacy regarding issues. So according to this theory, media article is also suitable. Virtue Under this classical ethical theory actions and their inaccuracies are not considered, representatives good personality traits are considered. As in media article, EU is taking challenge to implement net neutrality and also to maintain high level of security and privacy for peoples information, so government can be considered as a good representative under classical ethical theory of virtue. Besides this, EU government is also doing efforts to implement advanced security technologies to get rid of problem. Contract The fourth classical theory of ethics is contract. It is also known as theory of social contract. This theory describes that to live together there is requirement of morality that consists of some rules and also follow the concepts that both moral and political duties of persons are basically based on a contract or an agreement between them. If I talk about article about EUs process of net neutrality then I can say that there is a mutual understanding or an agreement between people who will use service of open internet and government of EU that both will not break trust of each other. It means, the open internet service will be secured for all by EU and no user will misuse this technology. In this way, this social contract will remain for long time. After analyzing the article of open internet on the behalf of above discussed ethical theories, I can say that this article fulfill all the requirements of morality and classical theories of ethics. Now in upcoming paragraphs, I will discuss some solutions that will be provided by EU government for secure implementation of open internet. It is necessary because in case of open internet issues of hacking, phishing and virus attacks etc. issues can occur (Opentextbc.ca, 2017). Resolution for Ethical Issue of Security Following are some essential solutions that can be used to get rid of ethical issue of security. The first solution is monitoring of overall market developments by NRA i.e. National Regulatory Authorities. The main responsibilities that will be carried out by NSA are management of network traffic, implementation of commercial processes and also execution of guidelines (Techterms.com, 2017). Another step that will be taken by EU government for managing security and privacy of information is testing the quality of open internet access service (Ruslim, 2017). Net Neutrality requires appropriate network solutions so that everyone can get better outcomes. Moreover, there is an organization of BEREC that can provide special guidelines to maintain long term security and privacy of open internet. Both NRAs and BEREC works in collaboration to provide best service to its customers (Austin, 2017) Conclusion In conclusion, I can say that ethical issues like security and privacy can be formed more harmful if these will not be controlled on time. According to media article, EU government has value for sustainability of internets confidentiality and reliability that is why it is providing service of net neutrality with proper security and that must be done by every internet service provider for its customers. References SearchCIO. (2017). What is ICT (information and communications technology, or technologies)? - Definition from WhatIs.com. (2017). Retrieved 22 September 2017, from https://searchcio.techtarget.com/definition/ICT-information-and-communications-technology-or-technologies Techterms.com. (2017). ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) Definition. Retrieved 22 September 2017, from https://techterms.com/definition/ict Sevenpillarsinstitute.org. (2017). Moral Theories. Retrieved 22 September 2017, from https://sevenpillarsinstitute.org/morality-101/moral-traditions Austin. (2017). Chapter 6 - Four Classic Theories of Ethics, The Ethical Journalist, . Slideshare.net. Retrieved 22 September 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/laustinnc/chapter-6-4-classic-theories-of-ethics?next_slideshow=1 Ruslim. (2017). Ethical theories. Slideshare.net. economics 22 September 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/NicolasRuslim/ethical-theories-40471063 Opentextbc.ca. (2017). 2.9 Social Contract Theory | Ethics in Law Enforcement. Retrieved 22 September 2017, from https://opentextbc.ca/ethicsinlawenforcement/chapter/2-9-social-contract-theory/ Digital Single Market. (2017). Open Internet. Retrieved 22 September 2017, from https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/open-internet-net-neutrality Christian Research Institute. (2017). Ethics Theories: Utilitarianism Vs. Deontological Ethics - Christian Research Institute. Retrieved 22 September 2017, from https://www.equip.org/article/ethics-theories-utilitarianism-vs-deontological-ethics/ Alexander, L., Moore, M. (2017). Deontological Ethics. Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 22 September 2017, from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/ Encyclopedia Britannica. (2017). utilitarianism | psychology. Retrieved 22 September 2017, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/utilitarianism-philosoph

Friday, November 29, 2019

Talcott Parsons Essay Example For Students

Talcott Parsons Essay IntroductionOf his time, Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) was considered the most admired American sociologist. Parsons was bread into a well-to-do family and was given a strong educational foundation as a child. Starting as a biologist, Parsons felt out of place and transferred to economics and sociology. As he excelled in these fields, Parsons began studies in Europe, giving him a wide view on different societies. He began teaching at Harvard, and there he exposed his sociological thoughts. Although very controversial, Parsons works had influences on all aspects of Sociology. He generally focused on social action and systems and believed that morality in social action is the main element to help preserve social order. In The Structure of Social Action (1937), Parsons developed earlier sociologists views into a theory of social action, or the action theory. These ideas look into todays society and its institutional structures, which work to clarify action and to gain from it. His second book, The Social System (1951), extends and further explains his prior theories, including a structural-functional strategy. Talcott Parsons functionalistic ways, influenced by Bronislaw Malinowski, became the center of debate. His beliefs were questioned and challenged by rival sociologists. His studies became even greater and his theories more significant. Until the time of his death, his principal aim focused on the systematic study of social action and its components. He looked at the surrounding factors and if and why they influenced the social system. As an award before his death, Parsons received high honors for his accomplishments in sociology. Many people considered him the most intelligent sociologist of his era. Methods for Securing InformationTo gather material on this subject, I used a few research tools. First, I utilized the internet as a source of information. Starting off, I figured I would use search engines, or special programs that find websites concerning your t opic, to begin. I listed as many keywords as I could, including Talcott Parsons, Parsons, sociology, sociologists, dead sociologists, and structural-functional paradigm. I then used these keywords in my searches on the yahoo!, excite, starting point, and webcrawler search engines. I passed trough websites, selecting valuable information and printing out what was needed. I looked over the various internet articles, and I highlighted and took notes on some important details. I kept the web pages nearby for quick reference. Next, I visited the Boca Raton Public Library to collect more substantial data. I began by using the librarys computers to search for information on Talcott Parsons and sociology. I was lead to the International Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, in which I found biographical supplements. I copied specific pages concerning Talcott Parsons, and as I read the text, I choose certain information for reviewing. This information was observantly copied to note cards. I locat ed two other encyclopedias, The New Encyclopedia Britannica and Encyclopedia Americana, and repeated the steps as before, using note cards to take notes. During my search, I found a paperback book on sociology. I studied the section pertaining to Talcott Parsons, and I took careful notes on his works. Afterwards, I researched the historical events happening while Parsons grew up. Initially, I found these events on the Society in History: Time Lines in my sociology text book. I noted the events and relied on the internet. I used the same method as before, search engines and websites. I listed the keywords on the subjects and found many different articles. I printed the useful documents and reviewed them for significant points. Last, I highlighted the main topics and noted the major facts. We will write a custom essay on Talcott Parsons specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Biographical InformationTalcott Parsons was born on December 13, 1902 in Colorado Springs. His family consisted of five siblings and his mother and father, Mary Ingersol Parsons and Edward Parson. According to the Inter. Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, His motherwas a suffragistand his father was a social gospel Protestant of broad academic interests (610). Parsons was academically pushed by his father, who was the first in the family to attend college. Although of Christian faith, his family was still interested in the sciences of Darwinism, which gave Parsons an early view of science. He attended high school at Horace Mann High School in New York City. After graduation, he started his studies at Amherst College. Parsons majored in biology, but shifted his thoughts to sociology later in his learning experience at Amherst. In 1924, Talcott graduated from Amherst and moved on to the London School of Economics. During his instruction in sociology and economics, Parsons began finding a correlation between his two interests. Sociology at Hewett explains that Talcotts most crucial experience was in his lecture with Bronislaw Malinowski: He was converted to functionalism under the influence of the anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski (1 of 2). Soon after Parsons began the London School of Economics, he was offered a place at the University of Heidelberg. In Germany, he was exposed to a new view of social thought, entailing Max Webers beliefs. Parsons began his classes in economics and sociology and Marxian theory. In 1927, he was awarded his doctorate in economics at Heide lberg, and he married Helen B. Walker around the same time. He then returned to America to teach economics at Harvard University. From 1928 to 1929, Talcott produced two writings about his main thoughts on society. He used different sociologists views and made critiques on them and incorporated his own conceptions. Parsons was still interested in the relationship between economics and sociology, and he began to notice that they had complex links. He was caught between the two fields, which he both admired, and noticed he had to make a change. So in 1931, Parsons became a member of Harvards sociology department and launched his teachings in the new subject. .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 , .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 .postImageUrl , .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 , .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6:hover , .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6:visited , .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6:active { border:0!important; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6:active , .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6 .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1b2ceb88d5b0c4883294782ccf0922c6:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Vocabulary for art history EssayDuring 1937, while teaching at Harvard, Talcott brought forth his first major work, The Structure of Social Action. Encyclopedia Britannica describes, Parsons drew on elements from the work of several European writersto develop a common systematic theory of social action (171). In the book, he investigated the theorists views and compared and contrasted between them. And he always centered his focus on moralitys place in social action. Soon, Parsons became a full professor in Sociology and began relating other fields to hi own. Two years later, Parsons attended a psychology institute, where he focused on Freuds theories. Parsons started payi ng attention to anthropology and psychology, and he formed an in depth analysis of the Freudian theory. In 1946, Talcott helped create the department of social relations, in which he was nominated as chairperson. To add, he became the president of the American Sociological Society in 1949. By the 1950s, he became the most celebrated sociologist in academic life (International Encyclopedia of Social Science 616). Parsons second book, The Social System, looked at his theses on a much bigger scale, and included many altered thoughts. He used his new studies as background information on the three types of action organization, cultural, social, and personality. He included the major problems of society and his structural-function views, how societys parts work together to maintain social order. As his views formed, he received much controversy on his subjects because they were so broad and varied. Although, Parsons continued his studies and developed an even wider view over time. He thou ght of society as four main parts, which were specialized for their purposes. He began using these examples for many studies in his later career. Also, Parsons looked at ancient civilizations as references. His study ran through the investigation of these societies and how they evolved to todays people. He examined all aspects of society and tried to incorporate them into one social science. His studies continued at Harvard University until 1973, when he retired. Not much is said about his after life, but he may have continued his views on society. He was very controversial and had a broad view, however, he was still an extremely influential Sociologists and contributed a lot to the field. On May 8, 1979, Talcott Parsons died in Munich, Germany. Living a long life, Parsons achieved many goals and left his mark in Sociology. Historical EventsWhile Parsons grew up, several historical events occurred. To begin, in 1903, the first working airplane was invented. Orville and Wilbur Wright successfully invented a working airplane in December 1903. They flew this plane for thirty-seven miles around a town in Ohio, and it landed perfectly. The airplane was later used in WW1. Another main event that happened was World War 1. This war was fought from 1914-1918, while Parsons was a teenager. During this segment, America, Great Britain, Russia, and France, fought against the German army in Europe. Simultaneously, America was battling Japan on the other side of the world. Both axis powers, Germans and Japanese, were trying to gain political control of other nations. In sociological history, there were two happenings that took place. Both losses were of the same subject and transpired around the same time. In 1917, Emile Durkeim, a French sociologist who was known for his suicide study, died. Then, three years later, Max Weber passed away. Patricia Miller-Shaivitz claims that Max Weber was a German sociologist, who was recognized for his study on institutions. These were considered two big losses for sociology. Contributions to SociologyTalcott Parsons started with his assessment of other sociologists views. He used these matters to form his own understanding on the subject and to create his theories. His views on social action and the social system created motion in the world of sociology. His works lead to Parsonianism, and they helped followers form their own theories on the matter. Parsons writing caused a lot of opposition in sociology, which helped arguing associates intervene with their thoughts. .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d , .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d .postImageUrl , .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d , .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d:hover , .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d:visited , .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d:active { border:0!important; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d:active , .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc35674fb060d93fcde885206fe89e87d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Defining Yourself EssayHis first book made a base for his theses and attracted a lot of attention. His supporters were formed and so was his Parsonian concept. His followers and concepts grew and widened. His notions created a big mark in sociology and in also other subjects. His views built a new way of thinking for other sociologists, leading to new subject matters and thoughts. With the release of Parsons second book, antagonism began stirring in sociology. His works caused competitors to criticize, and this enticed them to construct thoughts to fight Parsons conception In turn, he developed theories that associates could use to make similar or diverse assumptions. Unti l now, his works still are used as basic views on society, and they help us understand specific subject matters. During his teachings at Harvard University, Talcott induced his and other views into the minds of many young students. So, you can say that he bread a strong herd of sociologists. Parsons assisted in the movement for a sociology department at Harvard and ran it for many years. This new department was where the elite sociologists learnt their basics and graduated as leading theorists. Parsons also merged three fields of study, anthropology and psychology with sociology, which is still used by modern day sociologists. Even though he contributed in many other ways, Parson theories and views are still his main benefactions to sociology. Many people were interested in the action theory and his thoughts on social action, systems, evolution, and order, and people even ponder them nowadays. Encyclopedia Americana acknowledges that His work will continue to capture our imagination and respect (480). Sociologists and theorists will be using his notions for a long time to come. My ReactionsAs I began to research Talcott Parsons, I could not realize why people, mostly in the social science field, respected him so much. With the little information I could secure, I started to learn more about his life, and why he was so admired. I feel that people liked him because of his works, incorporating all aspects of society, and his contributions to society. His views looked at societys different parts, and how they worked as a group to perform specialized tasks. People felt that as he was trying to understand society, Parsons was trying to help society. His views included the whole society and created a new chapter of sociology. Along with this, he helped sociology by making the field well known. He was one person who started Harvards department of sociology, and he affiliated three main studies: anthropology, psychology, and sociology. All these factors influenced sociology and, therefore, made people honor Talcott Parsons. I would like to add that from the 50s to 6 0s, Parsons life and career was awfully complex. He was involved in many views on society, and he had numerous writings. I was not able to include that whole part of his life because it was too in depth and detailed. However, I pointed out the major elements of that time frame. Also, information on the last ten years of his life was out of my grasp. It is either unknown or exceptionally hard to locate. Bibliography

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Dow Corning Breast Implant Controversy

Dow Corning's full culpability in the silicone breast implant controversy is not widely known. For decades the company chose to keep secret a series of warning signals about silicone, and made misleading and false statements to the women who received implants. At the time, they did not realize that these secrets, misleading and false statements would rise up, years later, to haunt them. The original Dow Corning sales pitch, in a brochure entitled "Facts About Your New Look," promised a lifetime of safety and satisfaction. Silicone breast implants were advertised as benign and chemically inactive. (In fact, Dow Corning had no substantial evidence of safety, but had plenty of evidence that silicone implants were a high-risk product.) The beginning of the story goes back over 60 years! 1950's Silicone injections are banned in Japan because of dangerous side effects, including immunological problems. 1954A Dow Coming Chemical study finds that a chemical in silicone, called silica, has "quite a high order of toxicity," but this study is not released publicly. 1956 Again a Dow Corning Chemical study calls into question the safety of silicone, and again it is concealed from the public. Silicone fluid fed to laboratory dogs is found to migrate throughout their bodies and lodge in vital organs. 1960's California and Nevada pass laws against silicone injections, classifying them a criminal offence. 1961 As Dow Corning prepares to market the first silicone breast implants the company is advised by its own Center for Aid to Medical Research that silicone will bleed through a silicone bag and be absorbed into human tissue. Silicone leaking from implants can be equivalent to injections of silicone into the body. 1962 Alarmed about the health dangers posed by silicone, the FDA issues strict new regulations governing silicone injections. 1963 Dow Corning begins selling silicone breast implants under the... Free Essays on Dow Corning Breast Implant Controversy Free Essays on Dow Corning Breast Implant Controversy Dow Corning's full culpability in the silicone breast implant controversy is not widely known. For decades the company chose to keep secret a series of warning signals about silicone, and made misleading and false statements to the women who received implants. At the time, they did not realize that these secrets, misleading and false statements would rise up, years later, to haunt them. The original Dow Corning sales pitch, in a brochure entitled "Facts About Your New Look," promised a lifetime of safety and satisfaction. Silicone breast implants were advertised as benign and chemically inactive. (In fact, Dow Corning had no substantial evidence of safety, but had plenty of evidence that silicone implants were a high-risk product.) The beginning of the story goes back over 60 years! 1950's Silicone injections are banned in Japan because of dangerous side effects, including immunological problems. 1954A Dow Coming Chemical study finds that a chemical in silicone, called silica, has "quite a high order of toxicity," but this study is not released publicly. 1956 Again a Dow Corning Chemical study calls into question the safety of silicone, and again it is concealed from the public. Silicone fluid fed to laboratory dogs is found to migrate throughout their bodies and lodge in vital organs. 1960's California and Nevada pass laws against silicone injections, classifying them a criminal offence. 1961 As Dow Corning prepares to market the first silicone breast implants the company is advised by its own Center for Aid to Medical Research that silicone will bleed through a silicone bag and be absorbed into human tissue. Silicone leaking from implants can be equivalent to injections of silicone into the body. 1962 Alarmed about the health dangers posed by silicone, the FDA issues strict new regulations governing silicone injections. 1963 Dow Corning begins selling silicone breast implants under the...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The UK Housing Market Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The UK Housing Market - Assignment Example There will be a realistic rise in the real estate prices i.e. the prices will not rise too fast.  There will be a realistic rise in the real estate prices i.e. the prices will not rise too fast.  (a) 5% tax on the sale price of each property means a considerable burden for the house-building firms. If such a tax is levied on house building firms, they are bound to pass it on to the retail buyers i.e. it will result is the increase in prices, which in turn means more costly proposition that will ultimately lead to decrease in demand. But some offers on the part of authorities like the offer of low-interest rates to the retail house buyer will help offset this decrease in demand (like in part-a above).  (b) If there’s a significant fall in the prices of construction material like bricks, mortar, and timber then that is definitely a piece of good news for the house building firms as well as the prospective buyers. This will make the housing market more lucrative and competi tive as this will lead to competition amongst the house building firms to offer best bargains to the buyers, which in turn will offer a range of choices for the buyer. This will ultimately result in a considerable reduction in prices. (c) The stamp duty is a must for any house property bought by any individual, as it is tax paid to the government. But supposing Gordon Brown makes an announcement on May 1, 2006, that stamp duty will be doubled w.e.f. then the very first impact it will have is a rush for registering the properties before June 1 and thereafter there’ll be a phase for a couple of months when there will be a fall in the number of property registrations. Thereafter it will not have much of an effect on the prices as such reason being it is not a factor directly affecting the existing prices, but it will lead to some lull in demand.  

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Taoism-Tao Te Ching, Dao De Jing, or Daodejing Essay

Taoism-Tao Te Ching, Dao De Jing, or Daodejing - Essay Example Although, it is imperative for the survival of all creations yet it displays modesty by providing immeasurable benefits to all creations. Likewise, we should profit people without reason. It bends around obstacles, flows in places that people despise; instead modifies itself for the advantage of others. Although, every living creature is dependent upon it yet it humbly flows downwards, no place is too low for it. ‘Good dwelling on the ground’ can be interpreted as constructing dwellings which are strong enough to protect us. Depth of mind implies that one should meditate over matters in life and should not assume everything to be simple. Everything can be accomplished by using our mental faculties to the maximum. Moreover, it enlightens us that the worth of a gift lies not in its value but with the intent it is given. Good gifts are those which are given without any concealed motive. It accentuates the principal of honest and sincere speech. Words spoken are irreversible hence one should not indulge in flattery and fabrication. Honesty and integrity should be embedded deeply in ones character to live a righteous life. an honorable ruler is impartial . Injustice might profit a ruler temporarily but eventually he will have to pay for the consequences of his actions. One should try becoming knowledgeable and adept in his profession to attain better earning and promotion. Timeliness is the essence of a good deed so one should be compassionate to other people’s needs. Lastly, he identifies that a good solution is which benefits everybody .People benefiting in a situation should put themselves in place of those are at the losing end to come up with the best remedy for all. This chapter highlights the significance of curbing ones desires. Only when we abandon the path of needless desires, can we follow the path to spiritual development and get into contact with our inner self. He quotes examples reasoning why one should restrain from

Monday, November 18, 2019

Earliest Microsoft operating systems to the present-day release of Essay

Earliest Microsoft operating systems to the present-day release of Windows Vista - Essay Example Rowland Hanson, marketing head of Microsoft suggested that Windows would be a very appealing name to the customer when compared to â€Å"Interface Manager†, which was supposed to be its name. Windows 1.0 was rather an operating environment than a complete operating system; it extended MS-DOS and shared the intrinsic problems and flaws of the latter. It included a simple word processor called Windows Write, an appointment calendar, a simple graphics painting program called Windows Paint, a computer terminal, a clock, a control panel, a notepad, a card filer, and a RAM driver. The MS-DOS Executive and a game called Reversi were also included in the first version. On the 9th of December 1987 the second version of Microsoft Windows 2.0 was released, and gained more popularity than the first version. â€Å"Windows 2.0 supported the Video Graphics Array (VGA) display System, which allowed you to use 16 colors at 640x480† (Shinder, 2003, p. 5). It achieved more popularity than the first version because of the new Microsoft graphical applications namely Word and Excel for Windows, and because of its inclusion as a run-time version. Windows 3.0 version which was released in the year1990 was quite successful because apart from improved capabilities to the native applications it also allowed the users to a more advanced multitask based on older MS-DOS software when compared to Windows/386 due to the introduction of virtual memory. The third version of Windows gave strong competition to the user interface of the Macintosh computer. This version of Windows was compatible with any Intel processor from 8086/8088 to 80286 and 80386 and could run in Standard, Real and 386 Enhanced modes, and was the first version to run Windows program in protected mode, even though 386 enhanced mode kernel was an improved version of the kernel protected mode in

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Platos Practice Of Death

Platos Practice Of Death In the Phaedo, Plato argues that a true philosopher practices death as if at every moment life were behind him. To understand what Plato meant by a true philosopher practicing death, it is imperative to define philosophy, and death according to Plato and Socrates. Philosophy is defined as the love and search for wisdom. On a deeper level, it refers to the search of what makes a man happy. For philosophers, philosophy or the love for and pursuit of knowledge is a way of life and not just an intellectual pursuit. Plato and Socrates define death as the ultimate separation of the soul and body. They regard the body as a prison for the soul and view death as the means of freedom for the soul. Considering Plato and Socrates definition of death, in the life of a true philosopher, death does not occur when bodily functions cease. Rather, the true philosopher is already dead before they die or before bodily functions cease. The true meaning of the phrase a true philosopher practices death as if at every moment life were behind him can be found in these definitions. For the true philosopher, life involves the search for the meaning of life or what brings happiness in life, and conforming to it. True philosophers regard the body as an obstacle to the search for knowledge and meaning in life. The need to look after the body presents numerous distractions in the quest for knowledge. As such, a true philosophers main goal is to be free of the body and its entanglements, to pursue knowledge. Plato views human nature as dualistic or composed of the soul and the body. When a true philosopher disentangles himself/herself from the body, the soul remains. In other words, the true philosopher deserts the body to live in, and seek satisfaction of the soul, which is exactly what Socrates and Plato define as death. In so doing, the true philosopher practices dying or separation of the soul and the body, long before physical death occurs. Practicing of death is essential in refining peoples character. The pursuit of bodily pleasures is the root of all evil in the society. That is why all religions in the world encourage people to abandon the search for bodily pleasures and seek spiritual gratification, which is the stance taken by Plato. Separating the body from the soul enables human beings to see beyond the gratification of the flesh and pursue the things they believe in, without fearing the consequences these things might have on the body, and is so doing, demonstrate courage that can only be seen on a higher level than the body. Part 2: Nietzsches eternal return Nietzsche takes an evidently different view from Plato on life. He argues that we should live every day as though everything that happens in life will return eternally. Nietzsche takes on an approach that is not popular with religions and some philosophers to explain his point. For Nietzsche, the secret to living a fulfilled life is accepting and embracing reality. This is the true mark of a free spirit, or a spirit that is not hindered by anything. Many people suffer physically and mentally and go through life just trying to survive, in the hope for a better after life that transcends the current life. This is the stance taken by some religions such as Christianity. However, Nietzsche calls this self deception. In living life as though every day will recur, Nietzsche encourages one to accept what is and what has happened, and move to a higher level of liberation where one can will for what has happened to reoccur. The true meaning of life as Nietzsche explains is saying yes to life. He argues that it is not possible to separate good from bad and that suffering is a part of life that is imperative to achieve greatness. The truly free spirit is one that is grateful for everything that has happened, and one that can will for life to reoccur with all its joys, pains and sorrows, as this is the true joy of life. Free spirits enjoy life on earth and live every day to the fullest. Given a chance, they can will for everything to reoccur just as it has, as it would still deliver the same lessons that make great people. Free spirits have learned to embrace reality and not just get through life in hope for a better afterlife. This, according to Nietzsche, is living every day as though everything that happens will reoccur, and it is the true mark of a free person. Embracing Nietzsches philosophy makes people better and braver. By embracing reality, one is no longer afraid of what might happen. Rather, one can live a joyful life and take every joy, sorrow and instance of suffering as a chance to attain wisdom. The reason why one can will for an eternal recurrence is because the wisdom is not attainable without the experiences. Part Three: My view Of the two approaches to life, my preferred approach is Platos practice of death. Plato takes on a more realistic approach to life, and the end results of Nietzsches philosophy on life can still be achieved with Platos model, without having to will for an eternal recurrence. As successful people anywhere in the world will agree, attaining greatness requires one to subdue the body. Successful people usually work harder than other people. They have little regard for the wellness of the body and they force their bodies to go beyond the comfort point to achieve success. In practicing daily death of the flesh, successful people attain wisdom and greatness. Nietzsches model stresses on embracing the joys of life and living a full life on earth. However, it falls short by failing to recognize the fact that no one can truly enjoy life without hope. In the case of Plato, the hope is for eventual freedom in physical death. In the case of successful people, the hope can be for greatness or weal th but the path to this eventuality requires the daily death of the body which according to Plato is dying before you actually die.